Re-evaluation of the Beck et al. data to constrain the energy of the Th-229 isomer
The presently accepted value of the energy splitting of the Th-229 ground-state doublet has been obtained on the basis of undirect gamma spectroscopy measurements by Beck et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 142501 (2007). Since then, a number of experiments set out to measure the isomer energy directly, however none of them resulted in an observation of the transition. Here we perform an analysis to identify the parameter space of isomer energy and branching ratio that is consistent with the Beck et al. experiment.
Lifetime Measurement of the Th-229 Nuclear Isomer
The first excited isomeric state of Th-229 possesses the lowest energy among all known excited nuclear states. The expected energy is accessible with today’s laser technology and in principle allows for a direct optical laser excitation of the nucleus. The isomer decays via three channels to its ground state (internal conversion, γ decay, and bound internal conversion), whose strengths depend on the charge state of Th-229m. We report on the measurement of the internal-conversion decay half-life of neutral Th-229m. A half-life of 7±1 μs has been measured, which is in the range of theoretical predictions and, based on the theoretically expected lifetime of about 10,000 s of the photonic decay channel, gives further support for an internal conversion coefficient of about 10^9, thus constraining the strength of a radiative branch in the presence of internal conversion.
Feasibility study of measuring the Th-229 nuclear isomer transition with U-233 doped crystals
We propose a simple approach to measure the energy of the few-eV isomeric state in Th-229. To this end, U-233 nuclei are doped into VUV-transparent crystals, where they undergo alpha decay into Th-229, and, with a probability of 2 %, populate the isomeric state. These Th-229m nuclei may decay into the nuclear ground state under emission of the sought-after VUV gamma, whose wavelength can be determined with a spectrometer.
Based on measurements of the optical transmission of U:CaF2 crystals in the VUV range, we expect a signal at least 2 orders of magnitude larger compared to current schemes using surface-implantation of recoil nuclei. The signal background is dominated by Cherenkov radiation induced by beta decays of the thorium decay chain. We estimate that, even if the isomer undergoes radiative de-excitation with a probability of only 0.1 %, the VUV gamma can be detected within a reasonable measurement time.
Towards a measurement of the nuclear clock transition in Th-229
We investigate a potential candidate for a future optical clock: the nucleus of the isotope 229Th. Over the past 40 years of research, various experiments have found evidence for the existence of an isomeric state at an energy of a few eV. So far, neither the energy nor the lifetime of the isomer have been determined directly. As the scene is not yet prepared for direct laser excitation, other means of populating the isomer need to be explored. We investigate three different approaches, all of which rely on CaF2 crystals doped with 229Th or 233U. Various kinds of crystal luminescence are discussed in detail.
Direct detection of the 229Th nuclear clock transition
Today’s most precise time and frequency measurements are performed with optical atomic clocks. However, it has been proposed that they could potentially be outperformed by a nuclear clock, which employs a nuclear transition instead of an atomic shell transition. There is only one known nuclear state that could serve as a nuclear clock using currently available technology, namely, the isomeric first excited state of 229Th (denoted 229mTh). Here we report the direct detection of this nuclear state, which is further confirmation of the existence of the isomer and lays the foundation for precise studies of its decay parameters. On the basis of this direct detection, the isomeric energy is constrained to between 6.3 and 18.3 electronvolts, and the half-life is found to be longer than 60 seconds for 229mTh2+. More precise determinations appear to be within reach, and would pave the way to the development of a nuclear frequency standard.
A VUV detection system for the direct photonic identification of the first excited isomeric state of Th-229
With an expected energy of 7.6(5) eV, 229Th possesses the lowest excited nuclear state in the landscape of all presently known nuclei. The energy corresponds to a wavelength of about 160 nm and would conceptually allow for an optical laser excitation of a nuclear transition. We report on a VUV optical detection system that was designed for the direct detection of the isomeric ground-state transition of 229Th. 229(m)Th ions originating from a 233U α-recoil source are collected on a micro electrode that is placed in the focus of an annular parabolic mirror. The latter is used to parallelize the UV fluorescence that may emerge from the isomeric ground-state transition of 229Th. The parallelized light is then focused by a second annular parabolic mirror onto a CsI-coated position-sensitive MCP detector behind the mirror exit. To achieve a high signal-to-background ratio, a small spot size on the MCP detector needs to be achieved. Besides extensive ray-tracing simulations of the optical setup, we present a procedure for its alignment, as well as test measurements using a D2 lamp, where a focal-spot size of ≈100 μm has been achieved. Assuming a purely photonic decay, a signal-to-background ratio of ≈7000:1 could be achieved.
The extraction of 229Th3+ from a buffer-gas stopping cell
In the whole landscape of atomic nuclei, 229Th is currently the only known nucleus which could allow for the development of a nuclear-based frequency standard, as it possesses an isomeric state of just 7.6 eV energy above the ground state. The 3+ charge state is of special importance in this context, as Th3+ allows for a simple laser-cooling scheme. Here we emphasize the direct extraction of triply-charged 229Th from a buffer-gas stopping cell. This finding will not only simplify any future approach of 229Th ion cooling, but is also used for thorium-beam purification and in this way provides a powerful tool for the direct identification of the 229Th isomer to ground state nuclear transition.
Nuclear clocks based on resonant excitation of gamma-transitions
We review the ideas and concepts for a clock that is based on a radiative transition in the nucleus rather than in the electron shell. This type of clock offers advantages like an insensitivity against field-induced systematic frequency shifts and the opportunity to obtain high stability from interrogating many nuclei in the solid state. Experimental work concentrates on the low-energy (about 8 eV) isomeric transition in 229Th. We review the status of the experiments that aim at a direct optical observation of this transition and outline the plans for high-resolution laser spectroscopy experiments.
Radioluminescence and photoluminescence of Th:CaF2 crystals
We study thorium-doped CaF2 crystals as a possible platform for optical spectroscopy of the Th-229 nuclear isomer transition. We anticipate two major sources of background signal that might cover the nuclear spectroscopy signal: VUV-photoluminescence, caused by the probe light, and radioluminescence, caused by the radioactive decay of Th-229 and its daughters. We find a rich photoluminescence spectrum at wavelengths above 260 nm, and radioluminescence emission above 220 nm. This is very promising, as fluorescence originating from the isomer transition, predicted at a wavelength shorter than 200 nm, could be filtered spectrally from the crystal luminescence. Furthermore, we investigate the temperature-dependent decay time of the luminescence, as well as thermoluminescence properties. Our findings allow for an immediate optimization of spectroscopy protocols for both the initial search for the nuclear transition using synchrotron radiation, as well as future optical clock operation with narrow-linewidth lasers.
Experimental search for the low-energy nuclear transition in Th-229 with undulator radiation
To search for the lowest energy nuclear isomeric transition in Th-229 in solid samples, a novel adsorption technique which prepares Th-229 atoms on a surface of CaF2 is developed. Adsorbed Th-229 is exposed to highly intensive undulator radiation in the wavelength range between 130 and 320 nm, which includes the indirectly measured nuclear resonance wavelength 160(10) nm. After the excitation, fluorescence from the sample is detected with a VUV sensitive photomultiplier tube. No clear signal relating to the nuclear transition is observed and possible reasons are discussed.