Collective effects in 229Th-doped crystals

Vacuum-ultraviolet-transparent crystals have been proposed as host lattice for the coherent driving of the unusually low-lying isomer excitation in 229Th for metrology and quantum optics applications. Here the possible collective effects occurring for the coherent pulse propagation in the crystal system are investigated theoretically. We consider the effect of possible doping sites, quantization axis orientation, and pulse configurations on the scattered light intensity and signatures of nuclear excitation. Our results show that for narrow-pulse driving, the rather complicated quadrupole splitting of the level scheme is significantly simplified. Furthermore, we investigate complex driving schemes with a combination of pulsed fields and investigate the occurring interference process. Our theoretical results support experimental attempts for first direct driving of the nuclear transition with coherent light.